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Finding Your Center: Suitability Analysis to Locate a Town Center in Sierra Vista
Author: Gregory Christakos, firstname.lastname@example.org
Suitability Analysis, Urban Development, Sierra Vista, Town Center, Planning
As small cities grow and compete to attract new citizens, their ability to offer a thriving downtown, or town center, is key to their success. Specifically, these developments must contain ample amenities and desirable residencies to ensure that the city has an attractive downtown. One city which has begun planning a town center is the City of Sierra Vista, located in Southeastern Arizona. This study investigates the residential suitability component of the future town center site in Sierra Vista using a suitability analysis. Using cost distance functions and fuzzy logic, a series of cartographic displays show areas within the city where different services and amenities are easily accessible using existing transportation methods. These high accessibility areas are then compared to the five potential town center sites, as identified by planners, to see which sites fall within areas of greatest convenience for future residents. Results show that of the five possible sites, one in particular serves as the most ideal for developing a town center based on the accessibility to amenities that its location provides. The final maps and outcomes will help the City of Sierra Vista to determine which site is most ideal for town center development based on conditions ideal for residential growth.
|12/14/2015 - 6:00pm to 6:20pm|
The Fight for Water: Understanding Land Surface and Cropland Dynamics between Senior and Junior Water Rights Holders in Central Valley, California
Author: Melinda Brown, email@example.com
Water Rights, Central Valley California, NDVI, Cropland Data Layer, Subsidence
The complicated water rights system in California has led to a hierarchy for access to water, particularly affecting farmers in the Central Valley. Senior or junior water right status depends on the date users first claimed their water use or applied for a water diversion permit. The state’s Electronic Water Rights Information Management System (eWRIMS) online database contains related information, including water right type and points of diversion. During periods of drought, water allocations are adjusted and junior water rights holders are restricted more than seniors. Variable water supplies likely affect cropland health from year to year and influence farmers’ decisions to grow certain crops, but could also have other indirect impacts such as land subsidence due to increased groundwater pumping. This research project examines satellite imagery, vegetation indices, cropland classifications, and subsidence data to determine if cropland and land surface dynamics differ between the two water rights groups in the Sacramento and San Joaquin climate divisions. These data layers were sampled at points within buffered regions of the points of diversion. Statistical t-tests showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between seniors and juniors for characteristics including cropland diversity and maximum NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) over the past eight to fifteen years based on data availability. Land subsidence was limited to a small area in southern Central Valley, and only showed a significant difference in one of the two hot spots. Future analysis will replace the assumptive buffers with actual places of water use when data becomes available.
|12/14/2015 - 6:20pm to 6:40pm|
Multi-criteria Spatial Analysis: A Site Suitability Model for Wind Farms in Coconino and Navajo Counties, Arizona
Author: Sandra Steichen, firstname.lastname@example.org
Multi-criteria Analysis, Site Suitability Model, Wind Farms, Renewable Energy, Arizona
Wind energy is a renewable resource industry that can reduce reliance on fossil fuels for energy needs. The location of wind turbines is determined by several physical and environmental geographic factors. This study explores site suitability for wind farms in Coconino and Navajo Counties, Arizona utilizing multi-criteria spatial analysis. Key physical and environmental factors required for siting a wind farm are identified and classified based on suitability scores from 1 (unsuitable) to 4 (high suitability). Each classified criteria raster is weighted according to its importance or its percent influence and Esri’s Weighted Overlay tool is utilized to create a map of wind farm site suitability scores. The resulting site suitability scores are compared to locations of existing wind farms in the study area to evaluate model results. Results indicate that 48 percent of the study area is classified as areas of high to medium suitability, making this area a candidate for expanded wind energy exploration and implementation. This site suitability model can be utilized as a planning tool for wind farms in the study area and throughout Arizona.
|12/14/2015 - 6:40pm to 7:00pm|
Supervised Classification Automation and Web-Facing Distribution utilizing Python and Esri Web AppBuilder
Author: Robert Breeding, email@example.com
Python, Supervised Classification, Image Analysis, Vegetation Mapping, Land Use
The goal of this project is to create a Python tool to automate a common workflow of image analysis for preliminary assessment of land cover and vegetation mapping through supervised classifications in Pima County, Arizona. This tool is primarily designed to aid in assessing the distribution of resources, natural and non-natural, at multiple scales. Execution at multiple scale levels is necessary to illustrate that Remote Sensing project design is extremely important in successful classification of imagery. This project uses Landsat-5 TM imagery to conduct an image classification of twelve unique vegetation types in Saguaro National Park West - Tucson Mountain District. Landsat-5 TM imagery is also utilized at a smaller scale to conduct a land use classification using the same automated workflow. Results of the image classification process are evaluated by conducting accuracy assessments on the classified rasters. The Saguaro National Park West – Tucson Mountain District classification had a much lower overall accuracy than the Pima County land use classification due to how specific the classification was and the lack of spectral resolution present in the Landsat-5 TM imagery. The classified rasters are visualized in an interactive web application built with Web AppBuilder by consuming geoprocessing services allowing the processing to be completed in the client. This tool should be used as preliminary analysis for the area of interest, and is an effective classification workflow if paired with remotely sensed imagery that supports the project goals of a particular study.
|12/14/2015 - 7:15pm to 7:35pm|
Finding Relationship between Poverty and Gun Death Violence
Author: Abdulai Kondeh, firstname.lastname@example.org
Gun death violence, Poverty, Pima County, Relationship, Hotspot analysis, Point density analysis
Gun violence and poverty are among the most pressing issues today. Gun violence and deaths result in a more violent, depressed, and unsafe living conditions while poverty, on the other hand, is multi-dimensional in nature. Poverty can be defined as a state of deprivation of basic needs such as food, shelter, and health, and also as the inability to meet a certain minimum living standard. The direct and indirect impacts of poverty are diverse in nature and many research studies have found poverty to be correlated with gun violence. This study explores the relationship between poverty and gun deaths in the form of suicides, homicides, and accident cases centered in Pima County, Arizona. The study draws data from three different years to determine patterns of change over time. The study uses hotspot and point density analyses to determine clusters within the data and chi-square statistical analysis was utilized to determine a relationship between two variables. The study determined a significant correlation in 2010 and 2011, while a non-significant correlation was found in 2012 for the study. Resulting maps and graphs serve as visual aids and provide statistical computations to determine best strategies or innovative ideas to areas that needs intervention. This study will serve as a handy tool to government officials, development practitioners, researchers, and other stakeholders, whose effort are geared towards reducing the incidence of gun-related violence and deaths, poverty and their related variables.
|12/14/2015 - 7:35pm to 7:55pm|
Investigating the Response Time and Rate of Spread Behavior for Brushfires in Tucson’s Urban Washes and Vacant Lots
Author: Kenneth McCormack, email@example.com
Fire Modeling, Python, BehavePlus, Planning and Risk Management, buffelgrass
Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) is an invasive plant threatening the biodiversity and natural landscape of the Sonoran Desert and has been responsible for over seven thousand brushfires in Tucson’s washes over a period of twelve years. Using a Python-based tool in ArcGIS, brushfire events between 2000-2014 occurring within washes and vacant lots are simulated to help local fire fighters gain further insight into brushfire behavior, and develop more strategic plans for preventing structural and habitat damage caused by fire. Incorporating the ArcGIS Network Analyst extension with a fire’s longitude, latitude, and rate of spread (calculated using the fire model BehavePlus), a specified set of fastest routes from fire station to fire location are provided as outputs from the tool along with travel time. Furthermore, the tool generates a rate of fire spread used to calculate a cumulative area burned for multiple brushfire events. After generating twenty-eight outputs based on random sample points in calculated hot spot areas within the study area, a total area of 3.43 acres was burned. Network Analyst calculated travel time to each event with an average of 3.2 minutes, supporting the Tucson Fire Department’s estimate that they can arrive on site within 6 minutes of a report. An overall analysis of the economics involved in combatting these scenarios equaled a cost of $262,915 in 2014.
|12/14/2015 - 7:55pm to 8:15pm|
|Projects||Date and time|
Let’s Go Nuts: A Suitability Analysis of Persian Walnut Cultivation on Mount Lykaion, Arkadia, Greece
Author: Lauren Dreyfuss, firstname.lastname@example.org
Arkadia, Suitability Analysis, Persian Walnut Cultivation, Heritage Management, Greece, Mount Lykaion, Farming
The villages of rural Greece are dying. In no place is this more apparent than in the heart of the Peloponnese, in which lies the Parhassian Heritage Park. In an effort to support the economic opportunities of the area, this project investigates the cultivation of Persian walnuts in the Mount Lykaion character area of the park. The Persian walnut (Juglans regia) is a traditionally cultivated crop in the area and is grown not only for the nuts, but also for traditional products, such as candies and liquor. These value-added products offer an economic opportunity to the people still living in the area that functions within their traditional way of life. But first, in order to take advantage of this local resource, walnuts must be cultivated in a more rigorous way. To achieve this, I generated a suitability surface using a combination of raster elevation data, vector stream and road data, and control data collected in the field, based on where walnuts are already growing. This suitability surface was then applied to the entire study area, thus identifying any areas where walnuts could potentially be grown. This study presents a crucial first step toward a viable value-added product by identifying areas in the Mount Lykaion character area of the Parhassian Heritage Park that are suitable to cultivating walnuts.
|12/15/2015 - 6:00pm to 6:20pm|
Modeling Pectis imberbis with Maximum Entropy habitat software in Southern Arizona madrean grasslands
Author: Stephen Tham, email@example.com
Habitat Suitability, Rangeland Management, MaxEnt Modeling, ROC Curves, Conservation
Madrean desert grasslands are subject to numerous environmental pressures and, without conservation efforts, biological diversity will fade quietly. Bearded Chinchweed (Pectis imberbis) is a Sonoran Desert grassland plant that faces many threats that include grazing, off road vehicles, and road expansion. This study creates a habitat suitability model for Pectis imberbis that improves conservation and reclamation efforts in Southern Arizona. This study creates a habitat suitability model for Pectis imberbis using maximum entropy modeling software, SAS statistical analysis, and ArcGIS. MaxEnt takes environmental layers such as climate, soils, digital elevation models, and vegetation rasters as well as georeferenced point locations and creates the range of a given species. MaxEnt is a powerful modeling platform that can create relationships between as few as 10 species point locations, model relationships between environmental rasters and point locations, create test statistics. Results show that Pectis imberbis conservation efforts should be concentrated around the U.S. Mexico border near Nogales, Arizona and on the southern edge of the Atascosa Mountains. In addition, temperature annual range, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, and warm season precipitation are factors that drive healthy Pectis imberbis habitat. With complete soils data and continuous vegetation data, a future study would be able to create a model that even more accurately predicts Pectis imberbis range. With more studies, biological diversity conservation can become more efficient with interactive cartographic products that can pinpoint exact areas that need conservation.
|12/15/2015 - 6:20pm to 6:40pm|
Indexing and Caching of National Geothermal Data
Author: Naveed Ahmed, firstname.lastname@example.org
Geothermal Data, WFS, Indexing, GeoJSON, Web mapping
The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a massive repository of U.S. based geothermal resources and resource characteristics. The NGDS was developed to provide reliable and distributed networks of data. The objective was to offer greater accessibility to NGDS data so that geothermal features can be mapped for availability and better display. No such platform currently exists that provides users with full control over geothermal data through a robust search process. This project is intended to enable users to browse the exact NGDS data that is available for a specific location, provide real-time search and display features, and query within the multiple feature types. A web service is developed to aggregate the NGDS metadata repository using geothermal keywords. Catalogue Services for the Web metadata responses contain Web Features Service (WFS) references. These WFS references point towards geothermal feature datasets. Web services fetch text-based geothermal feature files and store them in MongoDB. Geographic point-collection files are passed through mapping functions that depict how GeoJSON features are indexed in ElasticSearch. After indexing of data, a comprehensive, self-explanatory, and lightweight web-based application is configured and deployed. This web mapping application is based on leaflet mapping API, and it provides a graphical and robust search platform. The application also provides data exploration platforms for developers, geothermal industry specialists, and students.
|12/15/2015 - 6:40pm to 7:00pm|
Application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation to Study the Effects of the 2011 Wallow Fire on Soil Loss
Author: Michael Joslin, email@example.com
USLE, RUSLE, NDVI, Wildfires, Soil Erosion, Wallow Fire, Arizona, New Mexico
Soil erosion is an important issue worldwide, especially in arid environments. Erosion can be accelerated through several factors, including wildfires. The 2011 Wallow Fire in Arizona and New Mexico burned approximately 535,000 acres making it the largest wildfire in Arizona history. In this study, I evaluated soil erosion rates before and after the Wallow Fire to study the effects of the fire on soil loss. To explore this problem, I used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The vegetation cover factor used by the equation was developed based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Landsat 5 images from before and after the fire. Results showed a slight decrease in soil loss for the entire area of the Wallow Fire. However, the amount of change in soil loss is dependent on in burn severity of the fire. Higher burn severity areas showed high increases in soil losses, while area of low burn severity showed a decrease or negligible change in soil loss. Results would be useful to post-fire soil erosion mitigation efforts.
|12/15/2015 - 7:15pm to 7:35pm|
Municipal Solid Waste Management: Integrated Alley-Street Centerline Network Designed for Routing Optimization
Author: Juan Canez, firstname.lastname@example.org
Routing, Collector App, City of Tucson, Alleys, Refuse Collection
Growth in population, daily human activity, and the living standards of society have resulted in the dramatic increase in solid waste generation. This has forced municipalities to assess their solid waste management systems in terms of cost-effectiveness, environmental impacts, and modification of collection routes. The City of Tucson intends to optimize their existing waste collection routes using automated routing software. With 30 percent of collection routes being alley-based, there is a need for the development of an alley centerline network that will be capable of model integration with this routing software. The goal of this project is to present a model whereby GIS applications and methods are applied to develop an alley-street centerline network using the attribute data structure of the current street network. Through the use of orthophoto aerial imagery and subdivision plat maps, alley segments were digitized and validated for spatial accuracy and location. Collection of non-spatial data such as alley surface type, condition, traversability, container damage, service type, was attained using Collector for ArcGIS. Through network construction and physical development, the integration of the alley and street datasets resulted in a fully functional centerline transportation network capable of efficiently modeling real world road network conditions.
|12/15/2015 - 7:35pm to 7:55pm|
Author: Imtiaz Syed, email@example.com
|12/15/2015 - 7:55pm to 8:15pm|
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Invasive Species in Alaska’s National Parks: A Case Study
Author: Shannon Apgar-Kurtz, firstname.lastname@example.org
Invasive Species, Alaska, National Park Service, Exotic Plant Management Team, Confidence Interval
Invasive species have the potential to cause irreparable harm to ecosystems that they invade. The National Park Service has created the Exotic Plant Management Team to halt the introduction and spread of invasive species, and there are questions regarding the effectiveness of their methods. This study determines if there is an overall increase or decrease in the total area of invasive species in two National Parks in Alaska. Invasive species eradication records were obtained for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve for the years 2005 through 2008 and Kenai Fjords National Park for the years 2004 through 2007 and 2009 through 2014. To determine increase or decrease in invasive species, the percent cover was multiplied by the total area for each polygon, for each year, and subtracted from the previous year. The results show there was an increase in the total area infected with invasive species in some years, while in other years there was a decrease. A qualitative interval for qualitative data was used to determine that there is a 95 percent confidence level that the true value of the percentage of sites with invasive species that were treated falls between the upper and lower limit of the confidence interval.
|12/16/2015 - 6:00pm to 6:20pm|
An Analysis of Source Data from Mental Maps: Perceptions of Pavement Conditions with an Applied Index in Casa Grande, Arizona
Author: Maree Archuleta, email@example.com
Mental Maps, Pavement; Casa Grande, Pavement Condition Index, Perception
Mental maps are used to elicit perceptions of the environment from members of the public. These maps can be used to interpret perceptions of pavement conditions in the form of ratings for selected street segments. Pavements are a part of the built environment and function to assist in the conveyance of the urban population. The City of Casa Grande is located in central Arizona between the cities of Phoenix and Tucson. City governments must consider multiple factors when determining what roads require maintenance above others. In addition to budget and the force and degradation factors, governments must assume that there will usually be public opinion on what streets take precedence over others. This study determines how perceptions of pavement conditions in 2015 from different stakeholder groups relate to the actual pavement conditions used by the City of Casa Grande Government. Statistical analyses between the actual pavement condition values and the perceived values were used to evaluate the ability of the stakeholder groups’ accuracy to predict the existing pavement conditions. In addition, a cumulative opinion surface was created to compare areas with low PCI values and areas that the public thought had low PCI values. Results collected from this study indicate that the input of the public was not able to completely or accurately predict the existing conditions of the roads. However, public opinion and how the opinions differ amongst stakeholder groups is a factor that cannot be ignored when determining the maintenance schedule for the road network.
|12/16/2015 - 6:20pm to 6:40pm|
Habitat connectivity for the white-sided jackrabbit (Lepus callotis) between the United States and Mexico: The border divides a species
Author: Myles Traphagen, firstname.lastname@example.org
Jackrabbits, Lepus callotis, Mexico, Chihuahua, New Mexico, grasslands, shrub invasion, wildlife corridor, habitat loss, fragmentation, climate change
The white-sided jackrabbit is a grassland obligate species that occurs exclusively in the Madrean Plains grassland of the eastern Sierra Madre foothills ranging from Durango, Mexico to its northern limit near Cloverdale, New Mexico. Formerly, the species enjoyed an unbroken migration corridor between the U.S. and Mexico, but since the 1990s severe population declines have been documented and connectivity among populations may no longer exist. Woody shrub invasion into shrub-free grasslands, a habitat which the hare relies upon, has resulted in a fragmented archipelago of grassland habitat in a once-pure sea of grass. Historic and recent survey locations of jackrabbit occurrence were used to build a path corridor model to determine if animals in the two countries have become isolated from each other. A single population of about 65 animals exists within a 5,838 hectare area of southwestern New Mexico. The model indicates that a migration corridor no longer exists between the two countries, and that this population is now separated from the nearest population in Mexico by about 100 kilometers. This is largely the product of shrub invasion into grassland habitat, a process which has fragmented the former migration corridors of Lepus callotis and places the continued survival of the species in doubt.
|12/16/2015 - 6:40pm to 7:00pm|
Digitizing the Past: The Creation of an Online Historical Web Atlas of Tucson, Arizona
Author: Alex Smith, email@example.com
Tucson, Arizona, Southwest, webmap, history, historical GIS, digital humanities
This project examines the history of Tucson, Arizona from 1860 to 2013 using an online web atlas. Comprehensive street-level maps spaced roughly a decade apart show the growth of Tucson from a small agricultural settlement to a moderately sized town and finally to a sprawling modern metropolis. The maps are modeled after online road map resources such as Google Maps, and include features such as municipal boundaries, parks, schools, hospitals, civic buildings, airports, railways, and notable historic and cultural sites using a standard symbology across all maps. The maps are hosted on an ArcGIS Online server as tiled raster imagery with zoom and pan capabilities. Data are constructed by taking modern GIS data acquired from governmental sources and altering them through intensive comparison of scanned historic road maps, topo maps, and surveys. This web atlas provides the first comprehensive digital resource for viewing the growth of a city in the Southwestern United States.
|12/16/2015 - 7:15pm to 7:35pm|
Land Use-Based Dust Production in Tucson, Arizona
Author: Jieru Hu, firstname.lastname@example.org
Land Use, Linear Regression Modeling, Air Pollution, PM10
The location and climate in Tucson causes uneven dispersion of big particulate matter, such as dust. It is therefore important to observe possible elements which may influence the production of these pollutants. To find and manage the main source of pollution is production is as important as cleaning up existing pollution. In this study, I used a land use regression model for a specific pollutant (PM10) at eleven monitoring sites in the Tucson area with GIS-derived predictors. The predictor variables are divided into three main categories: land use, population, and traffic. The variables include population density, total area of different land cover in buffered areas of monitoring sites with radii of 300m, 500m, 1,000m, and 3,000m, and total length of different roads in buffered areas of monitoring sites with radii of 150m, 300m, 500m, and 1,000m. The linear regression analysis determined which variables affect the amount of dust and disqualifies irrelevant variables. To find out if there any change of variables that affects dust production over time, I repeated the analysis for annual PM10 data from 2010 to 2014. Results illustrate that the 3,000 meter buffers around industrial areas and 1000 meter buffers around transportation areas are primarily related to annual average PM10 concentration. It indicates that the main source of particular matters (PM10) is from industrial and traffic activities.
|12/16/2015 - 7:35pm to 7:55pm|
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Waiting to Be Seen: Geospatial Barriers in Veteran Access to Healthcare
Author: Rachael Cushman, RachaelCushman42@gmail.com
Veteran, Healthcare, California-Metropolitan, Traffic Congestion
Over the past several decades, the ability of United States veterans to access quality specialized healthcare has come under scrutiny. Proximity and travel time to regional Veteran’s Affairs (VA) hospitals have been major contributors to this problem. In 2014, a policy change allowing veterans that encounter a major geographic barrier (mountain or large body of water) or reside greater than 40 miles away from the nearest VA facility to obtain permission for treatment at a civilian hospital. This study analyzes areas within the 40-mile service area of three regional VA hospitals in California where travel times exceed one hour and alternative drive times to other civilian hospitals would be less. This study determined that official state-recognized bottlenecks are in fact major geographic barriers. In order to solve this problem, I examined the drive times from selected points throughout the metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego during free flow traffic. This is contrasted with the driving times during peak traffic hours in areas that require travel through at least one area recognized by the California Department of Transportation as a bottleneck, causing potential delays. The results show that there are several areas where veterans may have to spend in excess of two hours traveling to attend appointments. The implications of this indicate that many veterans may go without necessary routine specialized care due to excessive travel impediments.
|12/17/2015 - 6:00pm to 6:20pm|
Remote Sensing of Vegetation Vigor Leading to the Wallow Fire in Arizona and New Mexico
Author: John Silva, email@example.com
Wallow Fire, Arizona, New Mexico, climate change, Supervised Classification
The Wallow Fire was a mega-fire that occurred in Arizona and New Mexico in 2011. Satellite data is available from Landsat for the 19 years before and the year after the fire occurred. 1992 to 2011 are the years before the fire occurred, and 2012 is the year after the fire occurred. This study analyzes the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) for those 20 years and compares the changes in vigor to the impacts of climate change. By performing a measurement of NBR for different vegetation types, a supervised classification was created. The NBR was then graphed for each vegetation type. The results show the vegetation class most effected prior to the Wallow fire was Spruce-Alpine Forest. Overall from 1992 to 2012, the NBR has showed a negative trend for all vegetation types and that climate change has impacted all the vegetation types in the area prior to the Wallow Fire occurring.
|12/17/2015 - 6:20pm to 6:40pm|
Analyzing Spatial Trends in the Nature’s Notebook Dataset
Author: Kara Clauser, firstname.lastname@example.org
Citizen Science, Phenology, Nature’s Notebook, BIOCLIM, Species Range
Citizen science is a method of data collection that been used for over one hundred years to collect data over broad geographic scales. One example of citizen science at work is Nature’s Notebook, a project that employs volunteers to collect phenology observations for plants and animals across the United States. This project analyzes spatial trends using the following high-priority species of deciduous trees: Acer circinatum, Acer negundo, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Quercus rubrum, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus garryana, Populus tremuloides, Populus fremontii, Populus deltoides, Populus balsamifera, and Cornus florida. First, data quality is assessed using species ranges to determine outlier sites that have been incorrectly identified. Second, bioclimatic variables (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and annual diurnal range) are used to assemble a climate profile for each species and determine the density of observations for each phenophase within specific climate zones. It was determined that Populous deltoides has the largest proportion of outliers with 45.07% of observations sites lying outside the species range. Based upon the climate profiles, the phenophases with the lowest densities of observations across all species are related to leaf size and color, while flowering, fruiting, and budding observations have the highest densities. Overall, the data also shows that consistent phenophase observations are lacking in areas of below average annual temperatures. To improve the quality of the dataset, campaigns need to focus on improving species identification within the genus Populus, as well as encouraging more consistent observations during phenophases related to leaf characteristics.
|12/17/2015 - 6:40pm to 7:00pm|